The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six main organs of the United Nations, responsible for the preservation of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the UN and approving any modifications to the United Nations Charter. Its power includes the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the approval of military action through Security Council resolutions. It is the only UN body allowed to bind resolutions to member states.
Just like the UN in its entirety, this council was created after the Second World War, in order to address the failings of a previous international organization, the League of Nations, in maintaining world peace. In its first decade, the Security Council was largely paralyzed by the Cold War division between the USA and USSR and their respective allies. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, UN peacekeeping efforts increased and the Security Council authorized major military and peacekeeping missions in Kuwait, Namibia, Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The Security Council is expected to meet two (many times conflicting) requirements: first, to make decisions that will assure prompt and effective action to maintain international peace and security; and second, to get the support of the greater UN membership for such Security Council decisions to be carried out. Reinforcing transparency, efficiency and inclusiveness of the working methods of the Security Council through meeting these requirements is essential for the effective functioning of the Council.
The Security Council consists of fifteen members. The great powers that were the victors of the Second World War, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, the Republic of China and the United States, serve as the body's five permanent members. These members are allowed to veto any substantive Security Council resolutions, including those on the admission of new member states or candidates for Secretary-General. The Council also has ten non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. Its presidency of the Council rotates monthly among its members.
The Historical Security Council, similarly to the Security Council deals with pressing disputes and conflicts that have occurred in the previously throughout history. It aims to view such disputes in alternative ways, seeking new viable solutions to solve previous historic occurrences and possibly modify the course of history.
Resolving the Gulf War of 1990-1991
Addressing the rise of Terrorism in the Middle East 2001-2011
Maria Fernanda Borda